December PD Blog

Professional development

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

Cook, J. A. (2018). Gendered expectations of the biographical and social future: young adults’ approaches to short and long-term thinking. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(10), 1376-1391.

Kikkert, M., Goudriaan, A., de Waal, M., Peen, J., & Dekker, J. (2018). Effectiveness of Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment (IDDT) in severe mental illness outpatients with a co-occurring substance use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 95(1), 35–42.

Rogers, J. L., Bernard, J. M., Veach, L. J., Moro, R. R., Ivers, N. N., Reboussin, B. A., … & O’Brien, M. C. (2018). Brief Counseling for Alcohol Misuse Among Trauma Patients: Two Interventions and Influence of Baseline Use. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 39(2), 89-105.

Shono, Y., Ames, S. L., Edwards, M. C., & Stacy, A. W. (2018). The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index for Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Problems: A Comprehensive Modern Psychometric Study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 79(4), 658-663.

Stockings, E., Bartlem, K., Hall, A., Hodder, R., Gilligan, C., Wiggers, J., … & Wolfenden, L. (2018). Whole‐of‐community interventions to reduce population‐level harms arising from alcohol and other drug use: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction. 113 (11), 1984-2018

Welch, T., & Cleak, H. (2018). Is Housing a Predictor of Autonomy and Quality of Life of People with Severe Mental Illness? Implications for Social Work. Australian Social Work, 71(4), 491-506.

Open Access Articles

Armstrong, G., Ironfield, N., Kelly, C. M., Dart, K., Arabena, K., Bond, K., … & Jorm, A. F. (2018). Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders who are experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviour. BMC psychiatry, 18(1), 228.

Fricker, N., Banbury, S., & Visick, A. (2018). Female domestic violence counsellors/psychotherapists: attitudes towards addiction: An IPA. MOJ Addict Med Ther, 5(3), 139-143.

Kamerāde, D., & Bennett, M. R. (2018). Rewarding work: cross-national differences in benefits, volunteering during unemployment, well-being and mental health. Work, Employment and Society, 32(1), 38-56.

Mahedy, L., MacArthur, G. J., Hammerton, G., Edwards, A. C., Kendler, K. S., Macleod, J., … & Heron, J. (2018). The effect of parental drinking on alcohol use in young adults: the mediating role of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Addiction.113 (11). 2041-2050 

Useful resources

Yarning Straight Out: New AOD online resource for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Clients

The Man Box: a study about being a young man in Australia

Insight Family AOD Toolkit contains tools and resources for those working with families

The Library’s Pinterest account contains AOD and mental health resources  for workers, clients and significant others.

The Black Dog Institute has links to online self-help tools and apps for those suffering from mental illness

e-Book of the month

Tolin, D. F., Steketee, G., & Frost, R. O. (2014). Buried in Treasures : Help for Compulsive Acquiring, Saving, and Hoarding (Vol. Second edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press

While most people find it relatively easy to manage their possessions, some find it extremely difficult. If you have a problem resisting the urge to acquire and you find your home cluttered and filled to capacity with items many people would find useless and unnecessary, you may suffer from a condition known as hoarding disorder. Hoarding is a behavioural problem consisting of clutter, difficulty discarding items, and excessive buying or acquiring. Hoarding is often associated with significant reduction in quality of life, and in extreme cases, it can pose serious health risks. If you or a loved one has hoarding disorder, this book can help. This fully updated Second Edition of Buried in Treasures outlines a scientifically based, effective program for helping those with hoarding disorder dig their way out of the clutter and chaos of their homes. Written by scientists and practitioners who are leaders in studying and treating hoarding disorder, this book outlines a program of skill-building, learning to think about possessions in a different way, and gradual challenges to help people manage their clutter and their lives. It also provides useful information for family and friends of people who hoard, as they struggle to understand and help. Discover the reasons for your problems with acquiring, saving, and hoarding, and learn new ways of thinking about your possessions so you can decide what you really need and what you can do without. Learn to identify the ‘bad guys’ that cause and maintain your hoarding behaviour and meet the ‘good guys’ who can help motivate you and put you on the path to change. Useful self-assessments will help you determine the severity of your problem. Training exercises, case examples, organizing tips, and motivation boosters help change the way you think and behave toward your possessions. This book provides easy-to-understand strategies and techniques that anyone can use.

Free to download for all HOA staff from the library catalogue on work computers

Listen – podcasts, webinars

 

Insight presentation recordings available now on YouTube

Other learning – short courses, certificates, diplomas, bachelors, post-grad

Introduction to Narrative Practice

6-7 December, cost $420

This 2 day workshop will offer an accessible introduction to key ideas and practices that inform narrative practice. Underpinning values, beliefs and assumptions of the approach will be explored. The workshop will introduce people to the concept of how stories can shape our lives. Narrative practice ideas will come alive with a range of practice stories and live demonstrations. Participants will have a chance to experiment and play with how to define an issue or a problem in a way that separates the person from the problem.

The workshop will be an opportunity to step away from the busyness of our work, to reflect on how we can work with our clients in ways that enable them re-connect with what is important to them, to assist them to step closer to their preferred ways of living (despite the problems they might be facing in their lives).

Workshop Venue: Lighthouse Resources Upstairs Training Room, Kyabra Street RUNCORN, QLD. 4113

 

November PD Blog

Professional development

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Webpage

The Lowitja Institute is Australia’s national institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research.

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

Glassner, S. D., & Cho, S. (2018). Bullying victimization, negative emotions, and substance use: utilizing general strain theory to examine the undesirable outcomes of childhood bullying victimization in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Youth Studies, 1-18.

Kelly, P. J., Robinson, L. D., Baker, A. L., Deane, F. P., Osborne, B., Hudson, S., & Hides, L. (2018). Quality of life of individuals seeking treatment at specialist non-government alcohol and other drug treatment services: A latent class analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 94, 47-54.

Mullins, C., & Khawaja, N. G. (2018). Non‐Indigenous Psychologists Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: Towards Clinical and Cultural Competence. Australian Psychologist, 53(5), 394-404.

Raubenheimer, J. E., & Barratt, M. J. (2018). Digital era drug surveillance: Quo vadis, Australia?. Drug and alcohol review, 37(6), 693-696.

Shono, Y., Ames, S. L., Edwards, M. C., & Stacy, A. W. (2018). The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index for Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Problems: A Comprehensive Modern Psychometric Study. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 79(4), 658-663.

Silins, E., John Horwood, L., Najman, J. M., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., Olsson, C. A., … & Boden, J. M. (2018). Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: An integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts. Addiction113 (10), 1811-1825 

Open Access Articles

Gray D, Cartwright K, Stearne A, Saggers S, Wilkes E, Wilson M (2018) Review of the harmful use of alcohol among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet.

Han, X., He, Y., Bi, G.H., et al. CB1 receptor activation on VgluT2-expressing glutamatergic neurons underlies Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)-induced aversive effects in mice. Sci Rep 7(1):12315, 2017.

Kiluk, B.D., Nich, C., Buck, M.B., et al. Randomized clinical trial of computerized and clinician-delivered CBT in comparison with standard outpatient treatment for substance use disorders: Primary within-treatment and follow-up outcomes. Am J Psychiatry, 2018 May 24:appiajp201817090978. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17090978. [Epub ahead of print]

Weinberger, A.H., Platt, J., Esan, H., et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of substance use disorder relapse: A nationally representative, prospective longitudinal investigation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 78(2):e152-e160, 2017.

Open access online journal

Addictive behaviors is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality human research on addictive behaviors and disorders since 1975.

e-Book of the month

Mignon, S. I. (2015). Substance Abuse Treatment : Options, Challenges, and Effectiveness. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

The first compendium of all substance abuse treatment options with a focus on best practices. This is the first compendium of the entire range of options available for treating substance abuse, with a focus on effectiveness. The book synthesizes treatment approaches from medicine, psychology, sociology, and social work, and investigates regimens that range from brief interventions to the most intensive and expensive types of inpatient treatment programs. It examines controversies over best practices in substance treatment and closely analyzes current research findings and their applicability for improving substance abuse treatment in the future. Written for both academics and clinicians, the book translates complex research findings into an easily understandable format. Substance Abuse Treatment examines the circumstances under which a treatment is considered effective and how effectiveness is measured. It discusses treatment goals and looks at the importance of client motivation in positive treatment outcomes. A great variety of inpatient and outpatient treatment options are examined, as are self-help programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous. This segues to a discussion of the changing role of self-help programs in treatment. The text also analyzes changes in the substance abuse treatment industry that make treatment more costly and less available to those without financial resources. It gives special attention to the treatment of diverse populations, those with co-occurring disorders, and criminal justice populations. National, state, and local prevention efforts are covered as well as substance abuse prevention and future issues in treatment. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate substance abuse courses in all relevant areas of study. In addition, it will be an important reference for substance abuse clinicians and other health professionals who treat patients with substance abuse issues.Key Features:Comprises a comprehensive, up-to-date, and practical guide to the field of substance abuse treatment and its efficacy Synthesizes treatment approaches from medicine, psychology, sociology, and social work Investigates all regimens ranging from brief interventions to intensive inpatient treatment programs, from outpatient to 12-step programs Explores the changing role of self-help programs in treatment Includes chapters on substance abuse treatment with special populations including children/adolescents, women, older adults, and criminal offenders (from EBSCO site).

Free to download for all HOA staff from the library catalogue on work computers

Useful resources

Opioid Check is a package of free tools, e-learning, videos and other resources designed for Queensland-based health and community service workers who engage with people who use opioids. Insight also have a range of other toolkits available to use including Meth Check, First Nations AOD and Dual Diagnosis.

Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

Insight Queensland

Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

Introduction to motivational interviewing (Prerequisite online induction material, module 5): Brisbane, 01/11/2018; Bundaberg, 07/11/2018; Cairns, 23/11/2018

AOD relapse prevention and management (Prerequisite online induction material, module 6):  Townsville, 02/11/2018, Bundaberg, 08/11/2018; Gold Coast, 22/11/2018; Cairns, 30/11/2018

The problem gambling severity index (PGSI): a screen for problem gambling in AOD and mental health populations: Brisbane, 08/11/2018

Understanding psychoactive drugs (Prerequisite online induction material, module 2) : Cairns, 09/11/2018

AOD crash course: introduction to working with people who use substances: Cairns, 13/11/2018; Townsville, 27/11/2018

Sensory approaches for AOD practice: Brisbane, 13/11/2018

Introduction to withdrawal management: Bundaberg, 14/11/2018

An introduction to mindfulness in AOD (2 days): Brisbane, 15/11/2018

Advanced harm reduction (Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop): Bundaberg, 15/11/2018

AOD clinical assessment (Prerequisite online induction material, module 4): Cairns, 16/11/2018

Micro-counselling skills and brief interventions: Brisbane, 20/11/2018

NIDA

Assessment and Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Dependence is a self-paced online course presented jointly by NIDA Notes and IRETA.

The activities should take about one hour to complete.

As you navigate the course, you’ll learn to identify the relationship between adolescents and sensation seeking/impulsivity. This connection is associated with the escalation of substance use. Students will become familiar with the screening tools that can detect and assess teens’ marijuana use, then explore new approaches to interventions and aftercare.

Listen – podcasts, webinars

The Drug Classroom is an interview style podcast that provides in depth discussions on a range of topics relating alcohol and other drugs including pharmacology, pharmacotherapy, drug policy and user experiences. The people interviewed in the podcast range from journalists, activists, psychotherapists, researchers and family members. Some of the topics covered include harm reduction for MDMA, opioid risks and problematic prescribing.

Dovetail is producing a series of short videos describing how workers can match their AOD interventions to a young person’s readiness to make a change.  The first video explains the Stages of Change model. In the early 1980s, researchers Prochaska and DiClemente developed the Transtheoretical model or ‘stages of change’ as it is better known. The stages of change model is a useful guide for understanding and exploring the process of change and can be used to tailor and match interventions that are person-centred and meaningful.

 

Non-suicidal self-injury

 

Webinars

NHMRC

27/11/2018 at 15:30 (AEST): Prevention and early intervention of mental illness and substance use: Building the architecture for change. Presented by Prof. Maree Teesson.

Insight

Wednesdays, 10:00-11:00 (AEST)

07/11/2018: Steroids: what are the risks and how do we reduce them?

14/11/2018: Managing pain in opioid dependent patients

21/11/2018: Portugal and beyond – alternatives to the war on drugs

Insight presentation recordings available now on YouTube

Write

Australian Social Work

The theme of this Special Issue of Australian Social Work is strategies for working with involuntary and resistant clients. Social workers work with involuntary clients and those who are resistant to decisions made on their behalf, in a wide range of fields in policy and practice including: child welfare; corrections; family services; health and mental health; substance use or abuse, or both; domestic violence; aged care; and school welfare.

The Guest Editors for this Special Issue are: Professor Chris Trotter, Social Work Department, Monash University (); Professor Emeritus Ronald Rooney, Social Work Department, University of Minnesota (); and Professor Traci LaLiberte, Social Work Department, University of Minnesota, (), all of whom are well-known for their work with involuntary clients.

In May 2018, a conference on this theme was held at the Monash Centre in Prato, Italy. While delegates who presented papers at this conference have been invited to submit papers, this is an open invitation. All those interested in the themes of the Special Issue are encouraged to submit papers.

Relevant papers would address: work with involuntary clients in the range of fields referred to above; strategies for working with the involuntary, mandated, non-voluntary or resistant clients in a variety of settings; the dynamics of working with this population; the importance of building relationships; problem solving with involuntary clients; challenging involuntary clients; practice skills specific to these groups.

Guidelines for submission

Authors may submit an original article (4000–6000 words), or a Practice, Policy, and Perspectives article (1500–4000 words). For guidance on how to submit, please see www.tandfonline.com/rasw and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th Edition.

Deadline for submission

All manuscripts should be submitted via Scholar One Manuscripts: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/rasw, no later than 30 May 2019. Authors are encouraged to contact the Guest Editors to discuss their intended submissions.

(Australian Social Worker, ©2018)

The 5th International Conference on Youth Mental Health: United for Global Change

Brisbane, 26-29 October 2019: Call for abstracts

Open until 14/12/2018 for poster, oral, tabletop or lightening presentation.

    October PD Blog

    Professional development

    You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

    Online resources

    Webpage

    The Healing Foundation has a website linking to resources about intergenerational trauma in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Read – professional reading

    Available from the library database

    Armstrong, G., Spittal, M. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2018). Are we underestimating the suicide rate of middle and older‐aged Indigenous Australians? An interaction between ‘unknown’Indigenous status and age. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.

    Barnett, A. I., Hall, W., Fry, C. L., Dilkes‐Frayne, E., & Carter, A. (2017). Drug and alcohol treatment providers’ views about the disease model of addiction and its impact on clinical practice: A systematic review. Drug and Alcohol Review.

    Hunt, G., Antin, T., Sanders, E., & Sisneros, M. (2018). Queer youth, intoxication and queer drinking spaces. Journal of Youth Studies, 1-21.

    Kristjansson, A. L., Kogan, S. M., Mann, M. J., Smith, M. L., Juliano, L. M., Lilly, C. L., & James, J. E. (2018). Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students. Addiction.

    McCann, T. V., & Lubman, D. I. (2018). Help-seeking barriers and facilitators for affected family members of a relative with alcohol and other drug misuse: A qualitative study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 93, 7-14.

    Wakeford, G., Kannis‐Dymand, L., & Statham, D. (2018). Anger rumination, binge eating, and at‐risk alcohol use in a university sample. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70(3), 269-276.

    Open Access Articles

    Bryant, L., Garnham, B., Tedmanson, D., & Diamandi, S. (2018). Tele-social work and mental health in rural and remote communities in Australia. International Social Work, 61(1), 143-155.

    Lamont-Mills, A., Christensen, S., & Moses, L. (2018). Confidentiality and informed consent in counselling and psychotherapy: a systematic review. Melbourne: PACFA.

    Petrakis, M., Robinson, R., Myers, K., Kroes, S., & O’Connor, S. (2018). Dual diagnosis competencies: A systematic review of staff training literature. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 7, 53-57.

    Roberts, R. M., Ong, N. W. Y., & Raftery, J. (2018). Factors That Inhibit and Facilitate Wellbeing and Effectiveness in Counsellors Working With Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Australia. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12.

    Tsou, C., Green, C., Gray, G., & Thompson, S. C. (2018). Using the Healthy Community Assessment Tool: Applicability and Adaptation in the Midwest of Western Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6).

    Useful resources

    Insight have produced several toolkits of resources for use by workers including:

    AOD Literacy Toolkit  

    First Nations AOD Toolkit

    The 2018 Global Drug Survey has just been released

    e-Book of the month

    Bukowski, W. M., Laursen, B. P., & Rubin, K. H. (2018). Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups, Second Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.

    The definitive handbook on peer relations has now been significantly revised with 55% new material. Bringing together leading authorities, this volume presents cutting-edge research on the dynamics of peer interactions, their impact on multiple aspects of social development, and the causes and consequences of peer difficulties. From friendships and romance to social withdrawal, aggression, and victimization, all aspects of children’s and adolescents’  relationships are explored. The book examines how individual characteristics interact with family, group, and contextual factors across development to shape social behavior. The importance of peer relationships to emotional competence, psychological well-being, and achievement is analyzed, and peer-based interventions for those who are struggling are reviewed. Each chapter includes an introductory overview and addresses theoretical considerations, measures and methods, research findings and their implications, and future directions (from publisher).

    Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

    Insight Queensland

    Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

    Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

    5 October, 08:30-16:00: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Townsville. Prerequisite Module 5

    9 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances – Logan

    9 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances – Brisbane

    11 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to AOD Clinical Supervision – Brisbane

    12 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Gold Coast. Prerequisite Module 5

    16 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Brisbane. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

    18 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Sunshine Coast. Prerequisite Module 5

    18 October, 09:00-16:30: Family Inclusive Practice in AOD Treatment – Brisbane

    23 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Withdrawal Management – Logan

    23 October, 09:00-16:30: Case Formulation – Brisbane

    25 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Logan. Prerequisite Module 5

    25 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Ipswich. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

    25 October, 09:00-16:30: AOD Relapse Prevention and Management – Brisbane. Prerequisite Module 6

    30 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances –  Toowoomba

    30 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Logan. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

    Listen – podcasts, webinars

    Cracks in the Ice

    Supporting frontline workers with information and resources about crystal methamphetamine. 17 October, 11:00-12:00 AEST

    Presented by Allan Trifonoff and Roger Nicholas, National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction (NCETA), Flinders University

    This webinar will provide attendees with information about
    – How ice affects people and communities
    – Worker safety and preventing, managing and recovering from ice-related critical incidents
    – The impacts of using ice with alcohol and other drugs

    Register here

    Past Cracks in the Ice webinars are available here

    Insight

    Free webinars at 10:00-11:00 AEST:

    10 October: The Great Vape Debate

    17 October: FASD as an Indigenous Rights Issue

    24 October: HIV Prevention and U=U

    31 October: Becoming a Trauma Informed Clinician- Taming the Inner Chimp by Talking to the Elephant in the Room

    Past Insight webinar recordings available now on YouTube

     

    Interventions and treatments for adolescent substance abuse: Publications guide

    Annotated bibliography

    Below are some citations and abstracts from publications about interventions and treatment for adolescent substance abuse.

    Allen, M. L., Garcia-Huidobro, D., Porta, C., Curran, D., Patel, R., Miller, J., & Borowsky, I. (2016). Effective Parenting Interventions to Reduce Youth Substance Use: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics, 138(2), e20154425.

    Context: Parenting interventions may prevent adolescent substance use; however, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of interventions across substances and delivery qualities contributing to successful intervention outcomes.

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of parent-focused interventions in reducing or preventing adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substance use and to identify optimal intervention targeted participants, dosage, settings, and delivery methods.

    Data sources: PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and CINAHL.

    Study selection: Randomized controlled trials reporting adolescent substance use outcomes, focusing on imparting parenting knowledge, skills, practices, or behaviors.

    Data extraction Trained researchers extracted data from each article using a standardized, prepiloted form. Because of study heterogeneity, a qualitative technique known as harvest plots was used to summarize findings.

    Results: A total of 42 studies represented by 66 articles met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that parenting interventions are effective at preventing and decreasing adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substance use over the short and long term. The majority of effective interventions required ≤12 contact hours and were implemented through in-person sessions including parents and youth. Evidence for computer-based delivery was strong only for alcohol use prevention. Few interventions were delivered outside of school or home settings.

    Limitations: Overall risk of bias is high.

    Conclusions: This review suggests that relatively low-intensity group parenting interventions are effective at reducing or preventing adolescent substance use and that protection may persist for multiple years. There is a need for additional evidence in clinical and other community settings using an expanded set of delivery methods.

    Becker, S., Hernandez, L., Spirito, A., & Conrad, S. (2017). Technology-assisted intervention for parents of adolescents in residential substance use treatment: protocol of an open trial and pilot randomized trial. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 12(1), 1-13.

    Adolescents in residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment have poor outcomes post-discharge, with follow-up studies suggesting that most adolescents relapse within 90 days. Parenting practices directly influence adolescent SUD outcomes, but parents of adolescents with SUDs are difficult to engage in traditional behavioral treatments. The current study adapts and evaluates a technology-assisted intervention for parents of adolescents in residential SUD treatment. Based on pilot qualitative data with parents, adolescents, and residential staff, we augment an existing computerized intervention (Parenting Wisely; PW) with four in-person coaching sessions, personalized text messages, and an expert-moderated online parent message board. We hypothesize that parents will find enhanced PW (PW+) both feasible and acceptable, and that adolescents whose parents receive PW+ will have better post-discharge outcomes than adolescents who receive standard care (SC) only. A two phase approach is used to adapt and evaluate PW+. Phase 1 consists of an open trial with 10 parents of adolescents (age 12–17) in residential SUD treatment. Post-discharge qualitative and quantitative data from parents and adolescents will support PW+ refinement. Phase 2 is a randomized pilot trial with 60 parents testing the effectiveness of adding PW+ to SC. Adolescents and parents will complete assessments at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 24-weeks post-discharge. Primary outcomes will be measures of feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes will include adolescent substance use, truancy, high-risk sexual behavior, and criminal involvement. Two parenting processes (monitoring and communication) are examined as potential mediators of change. This study will adapt and evaluate a technology-assisted parenting intervention as a means of improving adolescent outcomes following residential SUD treatment. Results have the potential to advance the field by: addressing a high-risk population, improving parental engagement; targeting parenting practices (putative mediators of change) that have been linked to adolescent outcomes; and developing a highly disseminable approach.

    Black, J. J., & Chung, T. (2014). Mechanisms of change in adolescent substance use treatment: How does treatment work?. Substance Abuse, 35(4), 344-351.

    Background: Adolescent substance use treatment outcome research generally shows small to moderate effects in reducing substance use, with no specific “brand” of treatment emerging as clearly superior to any other, and treatment gains that fade over time. The relatively weak and temporary effects of treatment call for improving the potency and durability of intervention effects. In response to this call, this critical narrative review summarizes research on mechanisms of change for both adults and adolescents in substance use treatment, with a particular focus on reviewing what is known regarding “how” adolescent substance use treatment works.

    Methods: A comprehensive review of the adolescent (ages 11–18) substance use treatment literature was conducted to identify empirical studies that examined mediators of intervention effects. Relevant databases (e.g., PsychINFO, Medline) were searched using key words (e.g., “mediator”), and relevant articles from reference sections of identified studies and review papers were considered.

    Results: Studies of mechanisms of psychotherapy change are rare in the adult, and particularly adolescent, substance use treatment outcome literature. The four adolescent studies that examined substance use treatment mechanisms found that positive social support, motivation to abstain, and positive parenting behaviors mediated treatment effects. To date, research has not supported therapy-specific mechanisms of change, finding instead that “common” processes of change largely account for improvements in outcome across distinct “brands” of treatment.

    Conclusions: The lack of empirical support for treatment-specific mechanisms of change may be due to the need for greater precision in defining and measuring treatment-specific causal chains. Future directions include neuroscience approaches to examining changes in brain functioning that are associated with treatment response and recovery and examining mechanisms in adaptive treatment designs, which can accommodate individual differences in targets for intervention and response to treatment.

    Das, J. K., Salam, R. A., Arshad, A., Finkelstein, Y., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2016). Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(4), S61-S75.

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research.

    Goorden, M., Schawo, S., Bouwmans-Frijters, C., van der Schee, E., Hendriks, V., & Hakkaart-van Roijen, L. (2016). The cost-effectiveness of family/family-based therapy for treatment of externalizing disorders, substance use disorders and delinquency: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 1-22.

    Family therapy and family-based treatment has been commonly applied in children and adolescents in mental health care and has been proven to be effective. There is an increased interest in economic evaluations of these, often expensive, interventions. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on cost-effectiveness of family/family-based therapy for externalizing disorders, substance use disorders and delinquency. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Education Resource information Centre (ERIC), Psycinfo and Cochrane reviews including studies conducted after 1990 and before the first of August of 2013. Full economic evaluations investigating family/family-based interventions for adolescents between 10 and 20 years treated for substance use disorders, delinquency or externalizing disorders were included. Seven hundred thirty-one articles met the search criteria and 51 studies were initially selected. The final selection resulted in the inclusion of 11 studies. The quality of these studies was assessed. Within the identified studies, there was great variation in the specific type of family/family-based interventions and disorders. According to the outcomes of the checklists, the overall quality of the economic evaluations was low. Results varied by study. Due to the variations in setting, design and outcome it was not feasible to pool results using a meta-analysis. The quality of the identified economic evaluations of family/family-based therapy for treatment of externalizing disorders, adolescent substance use disorders and delinquency was insufficient to determine the cost-effectiveness. Although commonly applied, family/family-based therapy is costly and more research of higher quality is needed.

    Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C., Greenbaum, P., Wang, W., & Alberga, L. (2018). Multidimensional Family Therapy as a community-based alternative to residential treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring mental health disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 90(1), 47-56.

    This randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) with residential treatment (RT) for adolescents with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders on substance use, delinquency, and mental health symptoms. Using an intent-to-treat design, 113 adolescents who had been referred for residential treatment were randomly assigned to either RT or MDFT in the home/community. The sample was primarily male (75%) and Hispanic (68%) with an average age of 15.4 years. Seventy-one percent of youth had at least one previous residential treatment placement. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 2, 4, 12 and 18 months post-baseline. During the early phase of treatment (baseline to 2 months), youth in both treatments showed significant reductions in substance use [substance use problems (d = 1.10), frequency of use (d = 1.36)], delinquent behaviors (d = 0.18) and externalizing symptoms (d = 0.77), and youth receiving MDFT reported significantly greater reductions in internalizing symptoms than youth receiving RT (d = 0.42). In phase 2, from 2 to 18 months after baseline, youth in MDFT maintained their early treatment decreases in substance use problems (d = 0.51), frequency of use (d = 0.24), and delinquent behaviors (d = 0.42) more effectively than youth in RT. During this period, there were no significant treatment differences in maintenance of gains for externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that Multidimensional Family Therapy is a promising alternative to residential treatment for youth with substance use and co-occurring disorders. The results, if supported through replication, are important because they challenge the prevailing assumption that adolescents who meet criteria for residential treatment cannot be adequately managed in a non-residential setting.

    Stanger, C., Lansing, A. H., & Budney, A. J. (2016). Advances in research on contingency management for adolescent substance use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 25(4), 645-659.

    Multiple interventions for treating adolescents with substance use disorders have demonstrated efficacy, but the majority of teens do not show an enduring positive response to these treatments. Contingency-management (CM) based strategies provide a promising alternative, and clinical research focused on the development and testing of innovative CM models continues to grow. This article provides an updated review on the progress made in this area since we last commented on the published literature in 20101. Areas covered include: controlled trials of treatment for adolescents referred to substance use treatment, innovative applications of CM to tobacco cessation among youth, analyses of moderators and mechanisms of CM treatment outcomes, the emerging literature on dissemination and implementation, and other literature suggesting a growing acceptance of CM as viable and effective intervention. The literature in this area continues to progress at a moderate pace, with many indicators of budding interest in the application of CM, and in finding cost effective models to enhance dissemination and implementation. As with other types of substance use disorder treatments, we need to continue to search for more effective models, focus on post-treatment maintenance (reduce relapse), and strive for high levels of integrity and fidelity during dissemination efforts to optimize outcomes.

    Stockings, E., Hall, W. D., Lynskey, M., Morley, K. I., Reavley, N., Strang, J., … & Degenhardt, L. (2016). Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(3), 280-296.

    We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision—which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted eff orts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people.

    Tanner-Smith, E. E., Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2013). The comparative effectiveness of outpatient treatment for adolescent substance abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(2), 145-158.

    Meta-analysis was used to synthesize research on the effects of outpatient treatment on substance use outcomes for adolescents with substance use disorders. An extensive literature search located 45 eligible experimental or quasi-experimental studies reporting 73 treatment–comparison group pairs, with many of the comparison groups also receiving some treatment. The first analysis examined 250 effect sizes for the substance use outcomes of adolescents receiving different types of treatment relative to the respective comparison groups. As a category, family therapy programs were found to be more effective than their comparison conditions, whereas no treatment programs were less effective. However, not all treatment types were compared with each other in the available research, making it difficult to assess the comparative effectiveness of the different treatments. To provide a more differentiated picture of the relative improvement in substance use outcomes for different treatments, a second analysis examined 311 pre–post effect sizes measuring changes in substance use for adolescents in the separate treatment and comparison arms of the studies. The adolescents in almost all types of treatment showed reductions in substance use. The greatest improvements were found for family therapy and mixed and group counseling. Longer treatment duration was associated with smaller improvements, but other treatment characteristics and participant characteristics had little relationship to the pre–post changes in substance use. Based on these findings family therapy is the treatment with the strongest evidence of comparative effectiveness, although most types of treatment appear to be beneficial in helping adolescents reduce their substance use.

    Van Ryzin, M. J., Roseth, C. J., Fosco, G. M., Lee, Y. K., & Chen, I. C. (2016). A component-centered meta-analysis of family-based prevention programs for adolescent substance use. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 72-80.

    Although research has documented the positive effects of family-based prevention programs, the field lacks specific information regarding why these programs are effective. The current study summarized the effects of family-based programs on adolescent substance use using a component-based approach to meta-analysis in which we decomposed programs into a set of key topics or components that were specifically addressed by program curricula (e.g., parental monitoring/behavior management, problem solving, positive family relations, etc.). Components were coded according to the amount of time spent on program services that targeted youth, parents, and the whole family; we also coded effect sizes across studies for each substance-related outcome. Given the nested nature of the data, we used hierarchical linear modeling to link program components (Level 2) with effect sizes (Level 1). The overall effect size across programs was .31, which did not differ by type of substance. Youth-focused components designed to encourage more positive family relationships and a positive orientation toward the future emerged as key factors predicting larger than average effect sizes. Our results suggest that, within the universe of family-based prevention, where components such as parental monitoring/behavior management are almost universal, adding or expanding certain youth-focused components may be able to enhance program efficacy.