October PD Blog

Professional development

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Webpage

The Healing Foundation has a website linking to resources about intergenerational trauma in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

Armstrong, G., Spittal, M. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2018). Are we underestimating the suicide rate of middle and older‐aged Indigenous Australians? An interaction between ‘unknown’Indigenous status and age. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.

Barnett, A. I., Hall, W., Fry, C. L., Dilkes‐Frayne, E., & Carter, A. (2017). Drug and alcohol treatment providers’ views about the disease model of addiction and its impact on clinical practice: A systematic review. Drug and Alcohol Review.

Hunt, G., Antin, T., Sanders, E., & Sisneros, M. (2018). Queer youth, intoxication and queer drinking spaces. Journal of Youth Studies, 1-21.

Kristjansson, A. L., Kogan, S. M., Mann, M. J., Smith, M. L., Juliano, L. M., Lilly, C. L., & James, J. E. (2018). Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students. Addiction.

McCann, T. V., & Lubman, D. I. (2018). Help-seeking barriers and facilitators for affected family members of a relative with alcohol and other drug misuse: A qualitative study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 93, 7-14.

Wakeford, G., Kannis‐Dymand, L., & Statham, D. (2018). Anger rumination, binge eating, and at‐risk alcohol use in a university sample. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70(3), 269-276.

Open Access Articles

Bryant, L., Garnham, B., Tedmanson, D., & Diamandi, S. (2018). Tele-social work and mental health in rural and remote communities in Australia. International Social Work, 61(1), 143-155.

Lamont-Mills, A., Christensen, S., & Moses, L. (2018). Confidentiality and informed consent in counselling and psychotherapy: a systematic review. Melbourne: PACFA.

Petrakis, M., Robinson, R., Myers, K., Kroes, S., & O’Connor, S. (2018). Dual diagnosis competencies: A systematic review of staff training literature. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 7, 53-57.

Roberts, R. M., Ong, N. W. Y., & Raftery, J. (2018). Factors That Inhibit and Facilitate Wellbeing and Effectiveness in Counsellors Working With Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Australia. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12.

Tsou, C., Green, C., Gray, G., & Thompson, S. C. (2018). Using the Healthy Community Assessment Tool: Applicability and Adaptation in the Midwest of Western Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6).

Useful resources

Insight have produced several toolkits of resources for use by workers including:

AOD Literacy Toolkit  

First Nations AOD Toolkit

The 2018 Global Drug Survey has just been released

e-Book of the month

Bukowski, W. M., Laursen, B. P., & Rubin, K. H. (2018). Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups, Second Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.

The definitive handbook on peer relations has now been significantly revised with 55% new material. Bringing together leading authorities, this volume presents cutting-edge research on the dynamics of peer interactions, their impact on multiple aspects of social development, and the causes and consequences of peer difficulties. From friendships and romance to social withdrawal, aggression, and victimization, all aspects of children’s and adolescents’  relationships are explored. The book examines how individual characteristics interact with family, group, and contextual factors across development to shape social behavior. The importance of peer relationships to emotional competence, psychological well-being, and achievement is analyzed, and peer-based interventions for those who are struggling are reviewed. Each chapter includes an introductory overview and addresses theoretical considerations, measures and methods, research findings and their implications, and future directions (from publisher).

Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

Insight Queensland

Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

5 October, 08:30-16:00: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Townsville. Prerequisite Module 5

9 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances – Logan

9 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances – Brisbane

11 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to AOD Clinical Supervision – Brisbane

12 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Gold Coast. Prerequisite Module 5

16 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Brisbane. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

18 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Sunshine Coast. Prerequisite Module 5

18 October, 09:00-16:30: Family Inclusive Practice in AOD Treatment – Brisbane

23 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Withdrawal Management – Logan

23 October, 09:00-16:30: Case Formulation – Brisbane

25 October, 09:00-16:30: Introduction to Motivational Interviewing – Logan. Prerequisite Module 5

25 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Ipswich. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

25 October, 09:00-16:30: AOD Relapse Prevention and Management – Brisbane. Prerequisite Module 6

30 October, 09:00-16:30: “AOD Crash Course” – Introduction to Working with People who use Substances –  Toowoomba

30 October, 09:00-16:30: Advanced Harm Reduction – Logan. NB: Participants must have completed Insight’s “Understanding Psychoactive Drugs” workshop or be an existing employee of an AOD or Mental Health service to be eligible for this workshop.

Listen – podcasts, webinars

Cracks in the Ice

Supporting frontline workers with information and resources about crystal methamphetamine. 17 October, 11:00-12:00 AEST

Presented by Allan Trifonoff and Roger Nicholas, National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction (NCETA), Flinders University

This webinar will provide attendees with information about
– How ice affects people and communities
– Worker safety and preventing, managing and recovering from ice-related critical incidents
– The impacts of using ice with alcohol and other drugs

Register here

Past Cracks in the Ice webinars are available here

Insight

Free webinars at 10:00-11:00 AEST:

10 October: The Great Vape Debate

17 October: FASD as an Indigenous Rights Issue

24 October: HIV Prevention and U=U

31 October: Becoming a Trauma Informed Clinician- Taming the Inner Chimp by Talking to the Elephant in the Room

Past Insight webinar recordings available now on YouTube

 

April PD

Professional development

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Webpage

Queensland Government  – Drug use: help and treatment

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

  • Heward-Belle, S., Laing, L., Humphreys, C., & Toivonen, C. (2018). Intervening with Children Living with Domestic Violence: Is the System Safe?. Australian Social Work, 1-13.
  • Jiang, M. Y., & Vartanian, L. R. (2018). A review of existing measures of attentional biases in body image and eating disorders research. Australian Journal Of Psychology, 70(1), 3-17.
  • Kaplan, L. M., Greenfield, T. K., & Karriker‐Jaffe, K. J. (2017). Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol’s harm from others. Drug and Alcohol Review.
  • Massey, S. H., Newmark, R. L., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2017). Explicating the role of empathic processes in substance use disorders: a conceptual framework and research agenda. Drug and Alcohol Review.
  • Pennay, A., McNair, R., Hughes, T. L., Leonard, W., Brown, R., & Lubman, D. I. (2018). Improving alcohol and mental health treatment for lesbian, bisexual and queer women: Identity matters. Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Public Health, 42(1), 35-42.

Open Access Articles

Open access online journal

Journal of Eating Disorders

A peer-reviewed open access journal exploring eating disorders

Open access textbooks

College open  textbooks: psychology

Useful resources

Australian College of Community Services Facebook page

ACCS is a not-for-profit Registered Training Organisation and national provider of professional development across various industries.

e-Book of the month

Howard, A., Katrak, M., Blakemore, T., & Pallas, P. (2016). Rural, Regional and Remote Social Work : Practice Research From Australia. London: Routledge.

This book gives voice to the direct practice experience of social workers working in rural and remote contexts using Australia as the primary case-study. The authors undertake a qualitative research project, conducting in-depth interviews to examine social work theory and practice against the reality of rural and remote contexts. Practice examples provide the reader with an insight into the diverse and complex nature of social work in rural and remote Australia and the role of contemporary social work. Through placing rural and remote social work in its historical, theoretical and geographical contexts, this work explores a range of considerations. These include isolation; ethical dilemmas when working with small and closely linked communities; climate, disaster relief and the environment; community identity and culture; working with indigenous communities in remote contexts; and social work education. Based on direct practice research, this book challenges existing theories of practice and reframes those to reflect the reality of practice in rural and remote communities. As social work must continue to critically reflect on its role within an ever changing and individualistic society, lessons from rural and remote settings around engagement, sense of place and skillful, innovative practice have never been more relevant. (abstract from EBSCO)

Free to download for all HOA staff from the library catalogue on work computers

Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

Insight Queensland

Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

  • April 6, 8:30-16:00 at Townsville: AOD Clinical assessment
  • April 17, 9:00-13:00: Crystal clear- responding to methamphetamine use
  • April 17, 9:00-16:30 at Bundaberg: AOD crash course- one day introduction to AOD
  • April 18, 9:00-16:30 at Bundaberg: Family inclusive practice in AOD treatment
  • April 24, 9:30-11:30: The problem gambling severity index- a screen for problem gambling in AOD and mental health populations
  • April 17, 9:00-16:30: Sensory approaches for AOD practice
  • April 26, 9:00-16:30 at the Gold Coast: AOD crash course- one day introduction to AOD

To register and for more details go their website

Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

Attend – conferences 

Health in difference is Australia’s premier conference on the health and wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, queer and sexuality, gender, and bodily diverse people and communities throughout Australia. Held at Sydney on 11-13 April costing from $345-780 for the full conference. Program details available and include mental health issues effecting the population. Register here

Write – presentations and papers

Get your work published in the Australian Journal of Psychology. Author guidelines are available here

 Listen – podcasts, webinars

Insight webinar: Overview of the ADIS service, April 18, 10:00-11:00

The Alcohol and Drug Information Service (ADIS) has operated for over 30 years as Queensland’s 24/7 hotline for anyone experiencing issues with alcohol or other drugs and their families. This presentation outlines service directions and insights from the ADIS dataset including over 540,000 calls across 14 years of data collection.

Presented by Dr Hollie Wilson – Allied Health Manager, Alcohol and Drug Information Service

Access at www.insight.qld.edu.au and enter participant code: 52365378

Insight presentation recordings available now on YouTube

Positive Choices drug and alcohol information webinars including:

Drug and alcohol and the maturing adolescent brain

How do mental health and substance use disorders affect young people?

 Assessed learning – short courses, certificates, diplomas, bachelors, post-grad

The Absurd Word: Creative Writing for Self-Supervision

Date: 24th April 2018, 9:30-16:30, $220 before 24/03/2018 and then $240

Venue: Lighthouse Resources Upstairs Training Room, Kyabra Street RUNCORN, QLD. 4113

This workshop uses creative writing to explore the challenges and successes in your practice. You will experience Five writing exercises that support self-awareness, critical reflection and potential lightbulb moments.  You may also unearth parts of yourself you had forgotten, not been aware of or had underestimated their impact on your practice.

Register here

My Heart Art: Image Making for Self-Supervision

Date: 30th April 2018, 9:30-16:30, $230 before 30/03/2018 and then $250

Venue: Lighthouse Resources Upstairs Training Room, Kyabra Street RUNCORN, QLD. 4113

This workshop uses painting, drawing and collage to explore the emotions of working in the human services field. You will experience art based exercises that support you to be aware of the emotions of your clients and of yourself, highlighting transference, countertransference and the dynamics of your working alliance. These exercises can be used for your own continued Self-Supervision and in your work with community members.

Register here

March PD

Professional development

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Webpage

National Rural Health Alliance:  This site provides access to resources such as factsheets to support rural health

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

Hyder, S., Coomber, K., Pennay, A., Droste, N., Curtis, A., Mayshak, R., & … Miller, P. G. (2018). Correlates of verbal and physical aggression among patrons of licensed venues in Australia. Drug And Alcohol Review, 37(1), 6-13.

Skerrett, D. M., Gibson, M., Darwin, L., Lewis, S., Rallah, R., & De Leo, D. (2018). Closing the Gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth Suicide: A Social–Emotional Wellbeing Service Innovation Project. Australian Psychologist, 53(1), 13-22.

Tomyn, A. J., & Weinberg, M. K. (2018). Resilience and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychometric Evaluation in Young Australian Adults. Australian Psychologist, 53(1), 68-76.

Vo, H. T., Burgower, R., Rozenberg, I., & Fishman, M. (2018). Home-based delivery of XR-NTX in youth with opioid addiction. Journal Of Substance Abuse Treatment, 85(1), 84-89.

Yuke, K., Ford, P., Foley, W., Mutch, A., Fitzgerald, L., & Gartner, C. (2018). Australian urban Indigenous smokers’ perspectives on nicotine products and tobacco harm reduction. Drug And Alcohol Review, 37(1), 87-96.

Open Access Articles

Open access online journal

World Psychiatry: the official journal of the World Psychiatric Association

Open access textbook

Pradhan, B., Pinninti, N., & Rathod, S. (2015). Brief Interventions for Psychosis.

This book offers a clinical guide that brings together a broad range of brief interventions and their applications in treating psychosis. It describes two core approaches that can narrow the current, substantial gap between the need for psychotherapeutic interventions for all individuals suffering from psychosis, and the limited mental health resources available.The first approach involves utilizing the standard therapeutic modalities in the context of routine clinical interactions after adapting them into brief and effective formats. To that end, the book brings in experts on various psychotherapeutic modalities, who discuss how their particular modality could be adapted to more effectively fit into the existing system of care delivery.The second approach, addressed in detail, is to extend the availability of these brief interventions by utilizing the circle of providers as well as the social circle of the clients so that these interventions can be provided in a coordinated and complementary manner by psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, case managers, peer support specialists and other providers on the one hand, and by family members, friends, social and religious institutions on the other.

(Book Abstract)

e-Book of the month

Fall, K. A., & Howard, S. (2017). Alternatives to Domestic Violence : A Homework Manual for Battering Intervention Groups. New York, NY: Routledge.

This is an interactive treatment workbook designed for use with a wide variety of accepted curricula for domestic violence intervention programs. This new edition adds and revises the exercises and stories in every chapter, covering important topics such as respect and accountability, maintaining positive relationships, good communication, parenting, substance abuse, digital abuse, and sexuality. Chapters on parenting, substance abuse, and religion have also been heavily revised based on current literature and group member feedback. The chapters provide a comprehensive collection of vital topics, including topics rarely addressed in other curricula, and exercises help the group members learn new strategies for leading a life of cooperation and shared power. Continuing the tradition of past editions, this edition not only focuses on the content of a good BIPP curriculum, but it also stresses the group process elements that form the backbone of any quality approach.

(copied from EBSCO database)

Free to download for all HOA staff from the library catalogue on work computers

Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

Insight Queensland

Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

March 1-2: Cullturally secure AOD practice- featruring IRIS

March 2: Understanding psychoactive drugs (Townsville)

March 13: AOD crash course

March 15: Understanding psychoactive drugs

March 15: The problem gambling severity index (PGSI)

March 23: AOD clinical assessment

March 26: Young people and drugs

March 29: Harm reduction 101

More details and registration here

Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

Turning Point seminars are online on their YouTube channel including:

Pathways out of addiction: the role of social groups and identity

Youth, moral panics and chemical cultures: a series of 4 short videos

Journal club TBA and will be on SKYPE

Attend – conferences 

QCOSS State Conference, May 16-17 at Brisbane: Movement for change. Cost $330-792 before March 16. Register here

  • Explore the current landscape in which we live and work, uncover the big issues and identify the stories that are dividing our community.
  • Develop an understanding of the evidence base for change and the current state of play from which we can move forward.
  • Explore reforms currently underway. Challenge your beliefs and attitudes and understand how these shape our actions and influence reform directions.
  • Hear from communities who have taken action, told a different story and have had success. How did they do it? What have they learned? Is this something we can all affect?
  • Learn from opinion leaders from different backgrounds and sectors who will discuss their experiences and how we can change how we think and tell our stories for the betterment of everyone.
  • Leave with an appetite and a recipe for action to take us closer to our desired future.

(QCOSS)

Listen – podcasts, webinars

Insight Qld

Free webinars on Wednesdays 10:00-11:00 (AEST).

  • March 7: AOD ‘our way’
  • March 14: Alcohol meets dementia- sorting through the maze
  • March 21: Codeine rescheduling: All you need to know but were too afraid to ask!
  • March 28: Treatment within corrections

Access at www.insight.qld.edu.au and enter participant code: 52365378

More details here

Australian and Indigenous Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre have a selection of webinars including:

Harnessing good intentions: addressing harmful AOD use among Aboriginal Australians

A practical guide to community-based approaches for reducing alcohol harm

Assessed learning – short courses, certificates, diplomas, bachelors, post-grad

The art of CBT: Skillfully appying the manuals to common clinical problems: One day workshop:

Adelaide 18 May; Brisbane 1 June: see link for other major cities. Costs $110-455 depending on status. Register here

4 Day Intensive CBT Masterclass for AOD Professionals

Where: Melbourne,  17-20 April 2018, $990-1390

This course has been developed especially for alcohol and other drug professionals who want to build and strengthen the core CBT clinical skills that are the foundation for all best practice CBT protocols from traditional CBT to newer cognitive therapy models like the mindfulness-based therapies.

  • Get back to basics and understand exactly what makes CBT tick
  • Learn the why not just the how so you can apply core skills to any CBT type
  • Unlock the art and science of your practice to take it to the next level

Our unique interactive self-practice approach means you will really experience CBT from the inside, creating a deep understanding of how it works. Cognitive behaviour therapy is an umbrella term that includes a number of solution oriented therapies focusing on self-reflection, problem solving and learning skills that can be applied across situations:

  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Relapse Prevention
  • Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy
  • Compassion Focused Therapy

Find out how to use the core skills of CBT to drive change whatever model you use. Our focus is understanding and experiencing the drivers of change in CBT that underlie all CBT models. Book here

 

 

 

 www.insight.qld.edu.auwww.insight.qld.edu.au

Annotated bibliography: Telephone counselling

Annotated bibliography

Bassilios, B., Pirkis, J., King, K., Fletcher, J., Blashki, G., & Burgess, P. (2014). Evaluation of an Australian primary care telephone cognitive behavioural therapy pilot. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 20(1), 62.

This paper discusses a telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy pilot project which was trialed from July 2008 to June 2010, using an Australian Government-funded primary mental health care program. Uptake, sociodemographic and clinical profile of consumers, precise nature of services delivered, and consumer outcome were all assessed using a web-based minimum datasets. Project officers and mental health professionals were interviewed to obtain details about the implementation of the pilot. In total, 548 general practitioners referred 908 consumers, who received 6607 sessions (33% via telephone) by 180 mental health professionals. Clients were mostly females with an average age of 37 years and had a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Both telephone and face-to-face sessions of 60 minutes in length were run, delivering behavioural and cognitive therapy, often at no cost to clients. Several issues were identified by project officers and mental health professionals, during implementation. Face-to-face treatment is usually preferred by providers and clients, but having the option of telephone counselling is valued, especially for clients who would not otherwise access psychological services. Evidence from the positive client outcomes supports the practice of offering a choice of face-to-face or telephone counseling or a combination of the two. A limitation of this study was the absence of a non-treatment control group.

Best, D., Hall, K., Guthrie, A., Abbatangelo, M., Hunter, B., & Lubman, D. (2015). Development and implementation of a structured intervention for alcohol use disorders for telephone helpline services. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 33(1), 118.

This article details a pilot study of a six-session intervention for harmful alcohol use via a 24-hour alcohol and other drug (AOD) helpline. It aimed to evaluate the viability of telephone-delivered intervention for AOD treatment. The intervention included practice features from motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy, and node-link mapping. It was evaluated using a case file audit (n=30) and a structured telephone interview a month after the final session (n=22). Psychological distress in the participants was significantly reduced and average scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) dropped by more than 50%. The results indicate that telephone intervention offers effective and efficient treatment for individuals with alcohol use disorders who are unable or unwilling to access face-to-face treatment.

Constant, H. M. R. M., Figueiró, L. R., Tatay, C. M., Signor, L., & Fernandes, S. (2016). Alcohol User Profile after a Brief Motivational Intervention in Telephone Follow-up: Evidence Based on Coping Strategies. Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, 4 (254), 2.

The benefits of intervention in alcohol abuse varies among individuals in particular with relapse. This research studied alcohol cessation in 120 people over a 6 month period and evaluated the effect of brief motivational interviewing. The study surveyed 120 participants over the phone using the Coping Behaviours Inventory as a measure. The study included a control group of 50 participants who did not receive any intervention. Almost all those who received telephone counselling had quit drinking alcohol at the 6 month period, whereas most of those in the control group did not stop drinking alcohol. The study suggests this may be due to motivation to change and social support. A longer term study was recommended.

Gates, P. (2015). The effectiveness of helplines for the treatment of alcohol and illicit substance use. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 21(1), 18.

While tobacco helplines or quitlines are thought to be effective, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of helplines which treat other substance use. This study reviewed literature on illicit drug or alcohol (IDA) helplines to address this gap. Five databases were searched for literature published in English, which involved the use of a telephone counselling helpline for the treatment of illicit drug or alcohol use. The author excluded review papers, opinion pieces, letters or editorials, case studies, published abstracts and posters. The initial search identified 2178 articles which were reduced to 36 articles after removing duplicates and those meeting the exclusion criteria. Descriptive information was provided in 29 articles about 19 different IDA helplines internationally. Call rates in these services varied from 3.7 to over 23,000 calls per month. Evaluative information was found in nine articles covering eight different IDA helplines, four articles described an evaluation of treatment outcomes against a control group and five articles contained details on treatment satisfaction or service utilisation. The study indicates that there is evidence that these services are effective. The studies in the review had poor consistency in their measures with few using randomized control groups. Limitations included that the articles were not evaluated by two independent researchers and the authors of the articles were not contacted for further information.

Haregu, T. N., Chimeddamba, O., & Islam, M. R. (2015). Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Therapy in the Management of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SM Journal of Depression Research and Treatment, 1(2), 1006.

This review was conducted as a gap was identified in systematic reviews identifying the effectiveness of telephone-based therapy for the treatment of depression. A total of nine papers were identified as meeting the selection criteria and were reviewed by the authors. It concluded that telephone counselling delivered by experienced and trained therapists is effective in treating depression and it suggested it is more effective than face-to-face but further studies are recommended.

Heinemans, N., Toftgård, M., Damström-Thakker, K., & Galanti, M. R. (2014). An evaluation of long-term changes in alcohol use and alcohol problems among clients of the Swedish National Alcohol Helpline. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 9(1), 22.

This study evaluated alcohol reduction and AUDIT scores in participants utilising a standalone telephone counselling service in the form of an alcohol hotline, employing trained counsellors. The data was collected by telephone survey from 191 participants at the first call and 12 months later. Change in AUDIT score was used as the primary outcome and the number of counselling sessions defined the exposure intensity. Most participants reduced their alcohol intake and AUDIT score in the year of the study and 50% reported better mental health. These figures were supported by other studies. They also cited a study which indicated that telephone counselling sessions with one face-to-face consultation had significantly better outcomes than face-to-face consultations alone.

Le Gresley, H., Darling, C., & Reddy, P. (2013). New South Wales rural and remote communities’ perception of mental health telephone support services. In 12th National Rural Health Conference, http://nrha. org. au/12nrhc/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/Le-Gresley-Helen_ppr. pdf.

This study examined perceived barriers to telephone counseling in rural communities. The data was collected using surveys and there were 213 participants. Most of the participants felt it was a cost-cutting option which was not as effective as face-to-face counselling. Cost of accessing the services using a mobile phone was also quoted as being a barrier, as was being placed on hold or not getting through and having to repeat their story to different therapists. Poor marketing of the different services led to confusion on which was the best service to access.

Tse, S., Campbell, L., Rossen, F., Wang, C. W., Jull, A., Yan, E., & Jackson, A. (2013). Face-to-face and telephone counseling for problem gambling: A pragmatic multisite randomized study. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1), 57.

This was a randomised study which aimed to compare the effectiveness of telephone and face-to-face counselling in treating problematic gambling. Psychological interventions were provided to 92 participants either by telephone or face-to-face over a 3 month period. Data was collected using surveys and questionnaires and significant changes were found over time in hours and money spent gambling and gambling beliefs. The study indicated that both face-to face and telephone counselling were equally effective in reducing problematic gambling. Limitations included the lack of a control group and the high rate of attrition of the participants, with only 27 completing the program.

Van Horn, D. H. A., Drapkin, M., Lynch, K. G., Rennert, L., Goodman, J. D., Thomas, T., … McKay, J. R. (2015). Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment. Addiction Research and Theory, 23(5), 391.

This study examined continual engagement rates in alternative treatment options in patients who had previously disengaged from intensive outpatient programs (IOP). Alternatives included return to IOP, individual psychotherapy, telephone counselling, medication management and no treatment. Of the 96 people contacted 6 chose telephone counselling and there were no differences seen in engagement with any of the treatment options. The limitations included the very small sample size and that participants were contacted by a researcher with whom they had had no previous engagement and asked to select a treatment option.